In algorithms, we denote and all other 5-tuple vectors are also converted to , , and etc.

In the basic algorithm, the parameter is fixed for all iterations. Here, we consider that can be changed at each iteration and propose a way to choose and We also compare this choice with the heuristic choices of and fixed Since the comparisons are based on the same algorithm, we only compare the number of iterations.

Let us consider three heuristic choices with fixed :

In the literature, authors seldom show exactly how and are chosen. Although these heuristic choices of are mentioned frequently in the literature, practical algorithms must develop more robust methods to choose As one can see in Table 1, the performances of H2, H3, and H4 vary in each problem. The main idea of Algorithm4.3 is to use three heuristic choices and to change the size of the neighborhood according to the result of H2. If is greater than , it follows that the descent of is small. One way to achieve larger descent is to have a larger neighborhood, i.e., choosing a smaller If is less than , it means that a large descent has been made. When is getting closer to the tolerance, it is important to pull the new point back to the central path, i.e., choosing larger If is still large, we use H4 to loosen the centering parameter. The reason is that the small value of H2 indicates that the current neighborhood is large enough to allow for a large descent. The following table shows the number of iterations for reaching the optimum using Algorithm 4.2 combined with the above four methods to choose and

Algorithm 4.3 | H2 | H3 | H4 | |

EX1-50 | 20 | 25 | 23 | 24 |

EX1-75 | 21 | 27 | 25 | 25 |

EX1-100 | 22 | 28 | 25 | 26 |

EX1-200 | 23 | 28 | 28 | 28 |

EX2-50 | 13 | 18 | 18 | 21 |

EX2-100 | 13 | 19 | 18 | 21 |

EX2-150 | 14 | 19 | 20 | 21 |

EX2-200 | 14 | 18 | 18 | 18 |

EX3-10-4 | 18 | 24 | 25 | 25 |

EX3-20-4 | 16 | 21 | 22 | 23 |

EX3-30-9 | 18 | 23 | 24 | 25 |

EX3-40-9 | 18 | 24 | 23 | 26 |

EX4-mark | 18 | 27 | 25 | 27 |

EX4-return | 23 | 30 | 30 | 29 |

EX4-risk | 21 | 27 | 26 | 29 |

EX5-10 | 27 | 30 | 33 | 31 |

EX5-20 | 26 | 32 | 31 | 33 |

EX5-40 | 30 | 35 | 37 | 36 |

EX5-80 | 31 | 36 | 35 | 38 |

EX6-10 | 26 | 28 | 34 | 33 |

EX6-20 | 35 | 36 | 42 | 43 |

EX6-40 | 50 | 57 | 57 | 58 |

EX6-60 | 62 | 66 | 71 | 79 |

Total |
559 | 678 | 690 | 721 |

According to this table, we see that the number of iterations using Algorithm 4.3 is overall less than using the heuristic choices. The average is about iterations less than H2, and H3, iterations less than H4. Since the problem is large, the running time for 6 or 7 iterations is still significant. Figure 1 from EX6-40 shows that decreases much more in Algorithm 4.3 than in the other three methods. Similar graphs can be obtained for each test case.