(3-10) |

where is the acceleration due to gravity, is the stiffness constant of the springs, is the rest length of each spring, and is an upper bound on the spring energy of the -th spring. Consider , , , , , , . Then and . The objective function becomes Furthermore,

**Example 6.** The data is the same as in springs.mod in
[16]. We have
and
. We use
as test cases.

Hans D. Mittelmann 2003-09-10